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The thirteen survivors were never seen again. Despite the desertion of the Lane colony, Raleigh was persuaded to make another attempt by Hakluyt, Harriot, and White. On January 7, , Raleigh approved a corporate charter to found "the Cittie of Raleigh" with White as governor and twelve assistants.

The colonists were largely middle-class Londoners, perhaps seeking to become landed gentry. The expedition consisted of three ships: The flagship Lion , captained by White with Fernandes as master and pilot, along with a flyboat under the command of Edward Spicer and a full-rigged pinnace commanded by Edward Stafford. The fleet departed on May 8. On July 22, the flagship and pinnace anchored at Croatoan Island. White planned to take forty men aboard the pinnace to Roanoke, where he would consult with the fifteen men stationed there by Grenville, before continuing on to Chesapeake Bay.

Once he boarded the pinnace however, a "gentleman" on the flagship representing Fernandes ordered the sailors to leave the colonists on Roanoke.

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The following morning, White's party located the site of Lane's colony. The fort had been dismantled, while the houses stood vacant and overgrown with melons. There was no sign that Grenville's men had ever been there except for human bones that White believed were the remains of one of them, killed by Native Americans. Following the arrival of the flyboat on July 25, all of the colonists disembarked. White dispatched Stafford to re-establish relations with the Croatan, with the help of Manteo. The Croatan described how a coalition of mainland tribes, led by Wanchese, had attacked Grenville's detachment.

Manteo again smoothed relations between the colonists and the Croatan. On August 18, , Eleanor Dare gave birth to a daughter, christened " Virginia " in honor of being "the first Christian born in Virginia". Records indicate Margery Harvye gave birth shortly thereafter, although nothing else is known about her child. By the time the fleet was preparing to return to England, the colonists had decided to relocate fifty miles up Albemarle Sound. After a difficult journey, White returned to England on November 5, During the winter, Grenville was granted a waiver to lead a fleet into the Caribbean to attack the Spanish, and White was permitted to accompany him in a resupply ship.

The fleet was set to launch in March , but unfavorable winds kept them in port until Grenville received new orders to stay and defend England. Two of the smaller ships in Grenville's fleet, the Brave and the Roe , were deemed unsuitable for combat, and White was permitted to take them to Roanoke.

The ships departed on April 22, but the captains of the ships attempted to capture several Spanish ships on the outward-bound voyage in order to improve their profits. Nearly two dozen of the crew were killed, and the supplies bound for Roanoke were looted, leaving the ships to return to England. Following the defeat of the Spanish Armada in August, England maintained the ban on shipping in order to focus efforts on organizing a Counter Armada to attack Spain in White would not gain permission to make another resupply attempt until They feared that the English had established a haven for piracy in North America, but were unable to locate such a base.

The port appeared abandoned, and there were no signs of activity on Roanoke Island. In , a plan was reportedly made to destroy the Roanoke colony and set up a Spanish colony in Chesapeake Bay, but this was merely disinformation designed to misdirect English intelligence. Eventually, Raleigh arranged passage for White on a privateering expedition organised by John Watts. The fleet of six ships would spend the summer of raiding Spanish outposts in the Caribbean, but the flagship Hopewell and the Moonlight would split off to take White to his colony.

Hopewell and Moonlight anchored at Croatoan Island on August 12, but there is no indication that White used the time to contact the Croatan for information.


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On the evening of August 15, while anchored at the north end of Croatoan Island, the crews sighted plumes of smoke on Roanoke Island; the following morning, they investigated another column of smoke on the southern end of Croatoan, but found nothing. On August 17 they sighted a fire on the north end of Roanoke and rowed towards it, but they reached the island after nightfall and decided not to risk coming ashore.

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The men spent the night in their anchored boats, singing English songs in hopes that the colonists would hear. White and the others made landfall on the morning of August 18 his granddaughter's third birthday. The party found fresh tracks in the sand, but were not contacted by anyone. They also discovered the letters "CRO" carved into a tree.

Upon reaching the site of the colony, White noted the area had been fortified with a palisade. Within the palisade, the search party found that houses had been dismantled, and anything that could be carried had been removed. Several large trunks including three belonging to White, containing the belongings he left behind in had been dug up and looted. None of the colony's boats could be found along the shore.

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The party returned to Hopewell that evening, and plans were made to return to Croatoan the following day. However, Hopewell ' s anchor cable snapped, leaving the ship with only one working cable and anchor. The search mission could not continue given the considerable risk of shipwreck. Moonlight set off for England, but the crew of Hopewell offered a compromise with White, in which they would spend winter in the Caribbean and return to the Outer Banks in the spring of This plan fell through, though, when Hopewell was blown off course, forcing them to stop for supplies in the Azores.

When the winds prevented landfall there, the ship was again forced to change course for England, arriving on October 24, Although White failed to locate his colonists in , his report suggested they had simply relocated and might yet be found alive. However, it served Raleigh's purposes to keep the matter in doubt; so long as the settlers could not be proven dead, he could legally maintain his claim on Virginia.

The petition was granted in During Raleigh's first transatlantic voyage in , he claimed to be in search of his lost colonists, although he would admit this was disinformation to cover his search for El Dorado. On the return voyage, he sailed past the Outer Banks, and later claimed that weather prevented him from landing. Raleigh later sought to enforce his monopoly on Virginia—based on the potential survival of the Roanoke colonists—when the price of sassafras skyrocketed. He funded a mission to the Outer Banks, with the stated goal of resuming the search.

By the time Mace approached Hatteras, bad weather prevented them from lingering in the area. There was one final expedition in led by Bartholomew Gilbert with the intention of finding Roanoke colonists.


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Their intended destination was Chesapeake Bay, but bad weather forced them to land in an unspecified location near there. The landing team, including Gilbert himself, was killed by a group of Native Americans for unknown reasons on July The remaining crew were forced to return to England empty-handed. Following the establishment of the Jamestown settlement in , John Smith was captured by the Powhatan and met with both their leader Wahunsenacawh often referred to as "Chief Powhatan" and his brother Opchanacanough.

They described to him a place called "Ocanahonan", where men wore European-style clothing; and "Anone", which featured walled houses. Later, after Smith returned to the colony, he made arrangements with Wowinchopunk, the king of the Paspahegh , to investigate "Panawicke", another place reportedly inhabited by men in European dress. The colony produced a crude map of the region with labels for these villages.

The map also featured a place called "Pakrakanick" with a note indicating, "Here remayneth 4 men clothed that came from Roonocok to Ocanahawan.

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In the summer of , Smith sent a letter about this information, along with the map, back to England. Smith planned to explore Pakrakanick, but a dispute with the Paspahegh ended the mission before it could begin. He also dispatched two search parties, possibly to look for the other villages reported to him, with instructions to find "the lost company of Sir Walter Rawley". Neither group could find any sign of the Roanoke colonists living in the area. By May , word had reached England's Royal Council for Virginia that the colonists had been massacred by Wahunsenacawh.

Machumps, Wahunsenacawh's brother-in-law, is known to have provided information about Virginia, and he had recently arrived in England. Based on this intelligence, as well as Smith's earlier report, the Council drafted orders for the Jamestown colony to relocate. These orders recommended "Ohonahorn" or "Oconahoen" , near the mouth of the Chowan River , as a new base.

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Among the purported advantages of this location were proximity to "Riche Copper mines of Ritanoc" and "Peccarecamicke", where four of Raleigh's colonists were supposed to be held by a chieftain named "Gepanocon". Gates arrived at Jamestown in May , several months into the Starving Time. The crisis may have deterred the colonists from attempting the proposed relocation. An expedition was sent to the Chowan River, but there is no record of its findings.

By , he had returned to England, where he wrote The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia , an overview of the Virginia territory. However, Strachey introduced additional details about "the slaughter at Roanoak". Strachey suggested that the lost colonists had spent twenty years living peacefully with a tribe beyond Powhatan territory. Wahunsenacawh, he claimed, carried out the unprovoked attack at the recommendation of his priests, shortly before the arrival of the Jamestown colonists.

Based on this account, seven English—four men, two boys, and one woman—survived the assault and fled up the Chowan River. They later came under the protection of a chieftain named "Eyanoco", for whom they beat copper at "Ritanoe". The Historie of Travaile never directly identifies the tribe that supposedly hosted the Roanoke colonists. However, Strachey did describe an attack against the Chesepians, in which Wahunsenacawh's priests warned him that a nation would arise in Chesapeake Bay to threaten his dominion.

Strachey believed that the Powhatan religion was inherently Satanic , and that the priests might literally be in communion with Satan. He advocated for England to facilitate the Powhatans' conversion to Christianity. To that end, he recommended a plan in which King James would show mercy to the Powhatan people for the massacre of the Roanoke colonists, but demand revenge upon the priests.

After the Powhatan attacked Jamestown in , there was a dramatic shift in English commentary on Native Americans, as writers increasingly questioned their humanity.

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The London Company sponsored propaganda arguing that the massacre had justified genocidal retaliation, in order to assure potential backers that their investment in the colony would be safe. In this context, Samuel Purchas wrote Virginia's Verger in , asserting England's right to possess and exploit its North American claim. He argued that the natives, as a race, had forfeited their right to the land through bloodshed, citing the ambush of Grenville's garrison, an alleged attack on White's colonists, and the Jamestown massacre.

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Purchas offered no evidence for his claim about the colony except to state, "Powhatan confessed to Cap. Smith, that hee had beene at their slaughter, and had divers utensills of theirs to shew. It is possible Smith related the story of Wahunsenacawh's confession to Purchas, as they are known to have spoken together. However, Smith's own writings never mention the confession, leaving Purchas's claim to stand alone in what historian Helen Rountree dismisses as "an anti-Indian polemic ".

Sea traffic through Roanoke Island fell into decline in the 17th century, owing to the dangerous waters of the Outer Banks. During John Lawson 's — exploration of northern Carolina , he visited Hatteras Island and encountered the Hatteras people. They reported that several of their ancestors had been white, and some of them had gray eyes, supporting this claim. Lawson theorized that members of the colony had assimilated into this community after they lost hope of regaining contact with England.


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  • Research into the disappearance of the colonists largely ended with Lawson's investigation. Renewed interest in the Lost Colony during the 19th century eventually led to a wide range of scholarly analysis.